It’s interesting to watch the evolution of a technology.  I attended my first LED lighting conference in 1998 and I’ve attended at least one in every intervening year.  In those first years, Las Vegas was the primary customer.  Nowhere else was lighting such a significant expense — and such an essential part of marketing.  Higher efficiency and lower maintenance represented a huge savings for casino operators on The Strip.  But the ability of LEDs to manage the distribution of light (direct it to the consumer instead of spraying it into space) and the flexible control of LED lighting (to easily reconfigure displays) added to the energy savings to make LED lighting worth the investment.

But there’s a big difference between convincing casino operators to upgrade their high-value, high-maintenance displays and getting consumers to shell out big bucks to replace their 25-cent incandescent bulbs.  The fundamental problem is that LEDs are significantly different than their incandescent predecessors, but it’s difficult to take advantage of their new capabilities within the current infrastructure.  So people pushing for LED adoption have to limit their argument to two factors: it will save energy and it will reduce maintenance costs.  It’s kind of like arguing for replacement of horsedrawn buggies with gas-powered automobiles, but having your arguments for change limited to discussions of lower hay costs and reduced need for street cleaning.

LED lighting squeezed into a familiar incandescent bulb form factor.

LED lighting can be made to look like an incandescent bulb, but that’s like requiring a buggy whip on a Ferrari.

Even with that limited evaluation, LEDs are now well past the point where they are economically viable (after some intense political, economic, and technological growing pains), so just about any lighting project today needs to at least consider LEDs as an option, and for many developers they are the option of choice.  But now that LED general illumination is in place, system operators are realizing some other benefits.

Networked Capabilities of LED Lighting

At the LED Show (starting yesterday in — fittingly enough — Las Vegas) Kelly Cunningham of the California Lighting Technology Center (CLTC) at the University of California-Davis described a networked implementation of LED lighting control on the university’s campus.  Outdoor LED lighting at the campus is triggered by passive infrared sensors that provide little more than a simple present-or-not signal.  Even with that limited input, the control system anticipates pedestrian and cyclist movement, bringing lighting up to full brightness levels before the traffic reaches the lit area.  The ability to remotely control and instantaneously modify the illumination level of LEDs is central to the operation of this kind of system, and the immediate benefits are impressive.

For example, 100 wall packs (those curious rectangular fixtures affixed to the outside of buildings and washing the walls with light) detected only a 28 percent occupancy rate, leading to an 85 percent reduction in energy costs — over and above the reduction simply due to LED efficiency alone.  The CLTC implemented the same kind of system on a stretch of urban roadway.  Although the final report has not been released, Cunningham said the results are similar.

That’s encouraging news for the industry, because those are the kind of integrated lighting systems that insiders have been claiming would lead to additional levels of savings (and other capabilities, but that’s another story), and this provides another fairly significant example of the promise coming to fruition.  It also demonstrates another general truth: if you don’t have a capability, then you don’t have any idea what you’ll do with it; but when you develop the capability you will apply the capability in clever ways.  That’s true for networked lighting now.  In the near future, the precise control LEDs offer over color, intensity, and distribution of light will be used to modify illumination in our work and home environments to enhance our comfort and productivity in ways we can only glimpse today.